Fungible Clouds

Break the cloud services vendor lock-in

Using Chef to Deploy Cloud Applications

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Chef is a popular Apache licensed open source configuration management and automation tool for the cloud. It drives three core ideas in the cloud computing industry.


Chef routinizes the repeatable steps in cloud operations management and it does that in a way that is almost agnostic to the underlying cloud provider. Chef thus helps make applications almost agnostic to the underlying machines.

Using Chef to manage cloud applications makes cloud computer from a provider, say AWS EC2, fairly easily substituted by cloud computers from another provider, say HP Cloud.

As my friend Kevin Jackson describes, Cloud computing has several economic benefits, however, cloud computing would become even more economical if cloud computers were fungibile, meaning, a cloud machine from provider X would be practically no different than another cloud machine from provider Y. Fungibility would make cloud computers easily substitutable driving the price further down by increasing the competition and reducing the differention between providers of cloud computers. Fungibility, by the way, is not a property of eukaryotic organisms.

Routinizing the repeatable is key to successful operations management and is described in detail in a paper on Integrated Operations by Prof. William Lovejoy of The University of Michigan Business School, Ann Arbor and I quote…

If some task is to be repeated many times, it makes sense to find out the best way to perform the task and then require its execution according to that best practice. This means that in stable task environments, stable work routines and policies will be generated over time, and this is efficient. This derives from March and Simon’s (1958) model of organizational learning. The consequences for this are that one will want to consider the relationship between efficiency and discretion allowed workers in a stable environment.

The ability to routinize the repeatable and provide consistent environments from development, through testing and staging, to production is a key benefit to successful business operations in the cloud.


Chef operation (sudo chef-client) is idempotent, repeat runs will produce the exact same resulting machine configuration as the initial run did. Idempotence is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science, that they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application. The term was introduced by Benjamin Peirce in the context of elements of an algebra that remain invariant when raised to a positive integer power, and literally means the quality of having the same power, from idem + potence (same + power).

Idempotent operations enables consistently reproducible cloud environments for development and production use. It helps bring order and reduce chaos in business operations.

Embryos and DNA Injections

Ok, I admit, this is going to be an incorrect analogy from biological science perspective but it does seem to work for some people as an crude example to explain the logic. What you get to accomplish is to give life to, say a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), a cow (Bos primigenius), a leopard (Panthera pardus), or a person (Homo sapiens), based on the DNA you inject into an embryo. On similar lines, you create a web server running nginx with a specific configuration, or a proxy running HAProxy, or a database master server running PostgreSQL or whatever you need, by asking Chef to run an appropriate set of cookbooks on top of a cloud machine running just enough OS or jeOS (pronounced as juice or jüs).

Chef helps spin up machines just the way you want with a specific set of software and specific configuration by building up from scratch right from bare metal machines loaded with just enough OS.

Putting these concepts to work

Let’s see in practise how these core concepts pan out in reality. This is best illustrated in form of a hands on exercise of creating an infrastructure in the cloud where we will have the production environment running first on a single server instance which is useful for rapid prototyping of apps while sharing a single machine among multiple applications to minimize cost. Once you’re comfortable with this basic all-in-one configuration, it’s relatively simple to scale it out, separating the various roles onto multiple machine instances. move I must caution you that this is a fairly elaborate setup that would be needed on your linux/unix workstation but fortunately it’s all pretty straightforward, and there’s a lot of good documentation available on the internet.

Tools we will use

  • A macintosh used as your workstation
  • Homebrew
  • Git - a distributed version control system
  • Chef
  • Chef cookbooks from the community
  • Access to a Chef server that you may run on your own - or you can use the hosted service Opscode provides free for up to 5 nodes.
  • Accounts with at least two cloud compute providers. I will illustrate the concept working across Amazon Web Services EC2 and HP Cloud Compute cloud but you are free to experiment with other cloud providers which should also work using similar concepts.

Setup the basics

homebrew, git, chef, librarian, vagrant, ec2, hpcloud

ruby -e "$(curl -fsSkL"
brew install git
gem install chef
gem install librarian
gem install vagrant
vagrant box add precise64 # latest Ubuntu LTS 12.04 for vagrant
gem install knife-ec2
gem install knife-hp

Connect to your Chef server

Follow the Chef Fast Start Guide to set up your workstation. You need to go through about half that guide up to step 4. Stop there as you don’t need to configure the workstation as a client. In our case, the chef clients will run on vagrant, ec2, hpcloud and other cloud providers you select instead of on your workstation.

If you follow that guide, it will create a ~/chef-repo/.chef/ folder with three files - knife.rb, validation.pem and username.pem. You need to move that .chef folder and those three files and to ~/.chef/ which lets you execute knife commands from anywhere on the workstation.

My knife.rb looks something like this. Please note that I am using my own chef server - not opscode hosted chef - so make sure to customize your knife.rb file to properly connect with your Chef server.

(knife.example.rb) download
current_dir = File.dirname(__FILE__)
log_level                :info
log_location             STDOUT
node_name                'nilesh'
client_key               '/Users/nilesh/.chef/nilesh.pem'
validation_client_name   'chef-validator'
validation_key           '/Users/nilesh/.chef/validation.pem'
chef_server_url          ''
cache_type               'BasicFile'
cache_options( :path => '/Users/nilesh/.chef/checksums' )
cookbook_path            ["#{current_dir}/../cookbooks"]

cookbook_copyright       "Your Name"
cookbook_email           "your@email.addr"
cookbook_license         "apachev2"

encrypted_data_bag_secret "#{current_dir}/encrypted_data_bag_secret"

knife[:aws_ssh_key_id]        = "awsdefault"
knife[:aws_access_key_id]     = "asdasdasdasdasdasd"
knife[:aws_secret_access_key] = "asdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasd"

knife[:hp_account_id] = "asdasdasdasdasdasd"
knife[:hp_secret_key] = "asdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasdasd"
knife[:hp_tenant_id]  = "123123123123123"
#knife[:hp_avl_zone]   = "Your HP Cloud Availability Zone" (optional, default is "az1")
#knife[:hp_auth_uri]   = "Your HP Cloud Auth URI" (optional, default is "")
  • line 4 - your username on chef server
  • line 5 - your pem file
  • line 6 - your organization name
  • line 7 - your organizational pem file
  • line 8 - url:port for your chef server

Create a working directory

mkdir -p ~/fungibility
cd ~/fungibility
git init

Gather community cookbooks

We will use librarian to gather the required cookbooks from the Chef community. Download this Cheffile to your ~/fungibility folder. This ~/fungibility/Cheffile will guide librarian what to bring down to the workstation.

(Cheffile) download
#!/usr/bin/env ruby
#^syntax detection

site ''

cookbook 'apt'
cookbook 'git'
cookbook 'mysql'
cookbook 'apache2'
cookbook 'php'
cookbook 'build-essential'
cookbook 'users'
cookbook 'sudo'
cookbook 'vim'

You can customize this Cheffile depending on your infrastructure needs. Libraian will download these specified cookbooks in $PWD/cookbooks and will also create a $PWD/tmp folder. You can put both these subfolders in your .gitignore file so as to not clutter your git repo.

cd ~/fungibility
librarian-chef install
echo cookbooks >> .gitignore
echo tmp >> .gitignore
git add .
git commit -m "initial commit"

Manage your custom cookbooks

Create a site-cookbooks sub-folder to store any custom cookbooks or customization to community cookbooks.

cd ~/fungibility
mkdir -p ~/fungibility/site-cookbooks
touch site-cookbooks/
echo "store custom cookbooks in here" >> site-cookbooks/
git add .
git commit -m "added a place for custom cookbooks"

Send cookbooks to Chef server

knife cookbook upload -a -o ./cookbooks	
knife cookbook upload -a -o ./site-cookbooks

and here is a BE CAREFUL: nuke all cookbooks command just in case you need to start from fresh.

knife cookbook bulk delete -y '.*'

Create Chef environments

Your development, test, and production environments may differ, for example, the development environment might include debugging tools, which may not be installed in production. Chef lets you define different environments and assign a node to a particular environment. Let’s create a dev, a stage and a prod environment which we can customize and fine tune later.

Create environments/dev.rb, with the following contents:

name "dev"
description "The development environment"

Create environments/stage.rb, with the following contents:

name "stage"
description "The staging environment"

Create environments/prod.rb, with the following contents:

name "prod"
description "The production environment"

Commit the environment files to version control:

git add environments
git commit -m 'Add development, staging, and production environments.'

Upload the environments to the Chef server:

cd ~/fungibility
knife environment from file environments/dev.rb
knife environment from file environments/stage.rb
knife environment from file environments/prod.rb

Create roles for your machines

Chef roles are a way to define certain patterns and processes that exist across nodes in a Chef organization as belonging to a single job function. It helps you define a group of recipes and attributes that should be applied to all nodes that perform a particular function.

Lets us start creating a base role that would apply to all nodes, a webserver role, and a db_master role for the master database.

Create roles/base.rb containing the following:

name "base"
description "Base role applied to all nodes."


  :authorization => {
    :sudo => {
      :users => ["ubuntu", "vagrant"],
      :passwordless => true

The run_list method defines a list of recipes to be applied to nodes in the base role. The override_attributes method overrides the default attributes used by community recipes. for example, this will overriding attributes used by the sudo cookbook so the vagrant and ubuntu users can run sudo without manually entering a password.

Create roles/webserver.rb containing the following:

name "webserver"
description "Web server role"

all_env = [ 


  "_default" => all_env, 
  #"dev" => all_env + ["recipe[php:module_xdebug]"],
  "dev" => all_env,
  "prod" => all_env, 

The env_run_list method in this webserver role defines different run lists for different environments. all_env array defines a common run list for all environments and is appended with additional run list item php:module_xdebug unique to dev environment in this case.

Create roles/db_master.rb containing the following:

name "db_master"
description "Master database server"

all_env = [


  "_default" => all_env,
  "prod" => all_env,
  "dev" => all_env,

The all_env array again defines a common run list for all environments.

Commit these three roles, base, webserver, and db_master created under the roles subfolder.

git add roles
git commit -m "add roles for base, webserver and db_master"

Update the roles in Chef Server

knife role list # list all roles
knife role delete `rolename` # to delete any stale role you may not need

knife role from file roles/base.rb
knife role from file roles/webserver.rb
knife role from file roles/db_master.rb

Set up a sysadmin

You need a user account created with sysadmin privileges on every node. You accomplish that by defining a data bag for the users cookbook, with attributes describing your credentials.

It is best to use your existing user credentials from your workstation. Look for your public key under ~/.ssh for a file named or or similar. That is your public key for your user account $USER on your workstation. Create a public/private keypair if you don’t find any by executing these commands.

echo "Checking for SSH key, generating one if it doesn't exist ..."
[[ -f ~/.ssh/ ]] || ssh-keygen -t dsa -C your@email.address

echo "Copying public key to your clipboard so you can paste it whereever you like ..."
[[ -f ~/.ssh/ ]] && cat ~/.ssh/ | pbcopy

Then create a new data bag file named after the user you want to create:

mkdir -p data_bags/users
vi data_bags/users/$USER.json

Edit below and paste your public key as one long string into the ssh_keys segment below and add this to the $USER.json file. Remeber to replace nilesh with your username on your workstation.

    "id": "nilesh",
    "ssh_keys": "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBANcunES89sbKlIhrtkpnECp7Z4a+BlJHZTHYjBAo/Itw2R4WmuXhbQiEcYdiYR0tZjKmIXzzG5M5wWIzpmvuOaBxThVMKk8Irgu0bzi9eNY/MD+EDTNRhzry8q/IJeh8jDRfSB2exdcMcFAjmiVdKJd5bbql5NkU9uZaxGhV2W8XAAAAFQCVxO/iejN6s/ToaJWfV8IEFaJiqwAAAIAHl3vQcjQ40G+ZLoj8S73fU7/XhX8ushb3fP4ERCFUm54mvkkezUXJGupUgEihZuPNHWZdvjouzD7H1HMf6xLaR/umjzBX3sNhKFwA0I1gFBsxnHEu3QW0JV9ObJdmfz70lm9/y8Cj96T+ErkgRKd7dW7XWeF125cR9yPWmPWsZwAAAIEAvXo9aoAtX9ZS/Z9WmNcdP2IH4/blOnLr8wMDk+r4hUd7nExWFF7ckDwOl5Wlm1iagvUHzkjRHQjyPX9uEs3WAxm7kk6ofnBiFYzfNAGemDgN1D5FkpTeg/cbkYohpr9Zyl9m1N5hV0jBW5faoh/O0KmFInLVi7yIrPHQNjGv/9o= your@email.address",
    "groups": [ "sysadmin", "dba", "devops" ],
    "uid": 2001,
    "shell": "\/bin\/bash"

Commit the data bag file to version control:

git add data_bags
git commit -m 'Add sysadmin user data bag item.'

Upload the data bag to the Chef server:

knife data bag list # to list out existing data bag items
knife data bad delete `itemname` # to delete any stale data bag item you may want to get rid of

knife data bag create users
knife data bag from file users users data_bags/users/$USER.json 

Encrypt your secrets

Use an encrypted data bag to store secrets like passwords and encryption keys.

Create an encryption key:

openssl rand -base64 512 | tr -d '\r\n' > ~/.chef/encrypted_data_bag_secret
chmod 400 ~/.chef/encrypted_data_bag_secret

Add this line to ~/.chef/knife.rb which would copy the encryption key to Chef clients so they can use it for decryption.

encrypted_data_bag_secret "#{current_dir}/encrypted_data_bag_secret"

Set the $EDITOR environment variable to vi by adding export EDITOR=vi to ~/.bash_profile or ~/.zshenv). The knife data bag command will launch this editor and allow you to edit the encrypted data bag contents. Create a new encrypted data bag item for storing MySQL passwords:

knife data bag create --secret-file ~/.chef/encrypted_data_bag_secret secrets mysql

Enter this into vi when it opens and make sure to select better passwords that these:

  "id": "mysql",
  "dev": {
    "root": "dev-my-root-password",
    "repl": "dev-my-replication-password",
    "debian": "dev-my-debian-password"
  "prod": {
    "root": "secret-root-password",
    "repl": "secret-replication-user-password",
    "debian": "secret-debian-password"

This would encrypt, set passwords for the dev and the prod environment and upload to the Chef server. To save the encrypted data bag locally, download that into a file and commit to version control in JSON format.

mkdir -p data_bags/secrets
knife data bag show secrets mysql -Fj > data_bags/secrets/mysql.json

cat data_bags/secrets/mysql.json # you will see the encypted version of mysql data bag item
  "id": "mysql",
  "dev": "vLb86kC71FK6Z860ru/5Nkz3oKTOu/+4fPY2ics3h82mfiZEZTS3KR3QF8LV\nORwCikcK32ahjpwvgYVo3IexpDRh3tyPKWs3tlup7m7dsiDs9TrKbYsL3Ze+\n/9N6cQweV2+MbJmJ7+qqRjmyxEECbg==\n",
  "prod": "/2tmCI0ewAmhSz9jr/izKLeqyEPUmq56p+9Ls7sf3Du6++hsryRnRse9ZDst\np+Z0OYKla0zzrknROqUrWCks+rmGuAMjHmUqFP14vSYN9F6znsf0I9EnEsLV\ncnflOuspU130zki7foaJmBo/OtyM5Q==\n"

Save that in version control.

git add data_bags
git commit -m "added encrypted data bag for mysql secrets"

Decrypt the data bag if you need to inspect. Just include the –secret-file argument:

knife data bag show secrets mysql --secret-file ~/.chef/encrypted_data_bag_secret 

Modify the encrypted data bag if you need using the knife data bag edit command:

knife data bag edit --secret-file ~/.chef/encrypted_data_bag_secret secrets mysql

but make sure to commit any secret changes back into git. Next chef run would apply the changes onto nodes.

Make mysql::server recipe use the encrypted data bag

The best practise is to keep customizations to community cookbooks in a separate site-cookbooks folder. However, I havn’t figured out yet what is the best way to override mysql community cookbook with this segment of code so resort to a hack and add the following to the top of cookbooks/mysql/recipes/server.rb:

# Customization: get passwords from encrypted data bag
secrets = Chef::EncryptedDataBagItem.load("secrets", "mysql")
if secrets && mysql_passwords = secrets[node.chef_environment] 
  node['mysql']['server_root_password'] = mysql_passwords['root']
  node['mysql']['server_debian_password'] = mysql_passwords['debian']
  node['mysql']['server_repl_password'] = mysql_passwords['repl']

Git will complain if you commit such a hack to version control so its best to remember that this is a hack and needs a cleaner approach to accomplish mysql cookbook to use encrypted data bag item for secrets.

git add cookbooks/mysql
git commit -m 'Read MySQL passwords from encrypted data bag.'

upload the updated mysql cookbook to Chef server.

knife cookbook upload mysql -o ./cookbooks

Spin up a single instance on EC2

This command assumes that you have a key named awsdefault and the corresponding awsdefault-east.pem pemfile saved in ~/Downloads folder, that the pemfile is marked read only for you chmod 400 ~/Downloads/awsdefault-east.pem, that you have a security group named webserver defined on EC2, that you have roles defined and upload onto Chef server, and that have environments also uploaded. The specified AMI ami-9c78c0f5 is the official 64-bit Ubuntu 12.04 EBS image in the us-east-1 region. If you want to use a different EC2 region, select a similar AMI in your desired region from the ubuntu AMI list. Also, you musts specify the db_master role before the webserver role.

knife ec2 server create \
    -S awsdefault -i ~/Downloads/awsdefault-east.pem \
    -G webserver,default \
    -x ubuntu \
    -d ubuntu12.04-gems \
    -E prod \
    -I ami-9c78c0f5 \
    -f m1.small \
    -r "role[base],role[db_master],role[webserver]" 

After the provisioning is completed, knife will list some details on your new EC2 instalce like this.

... [2012-12-12T01:19:21+00:00] INFO: Chef Run complete in 259.308362 seconds [2012-12-12T01:19:21+00:00] INFO: Running report handlers [2012-12-12T01:19:21+00:00] INFO: Report handlers complete

Instance ID: i-604df61e
Flavor: m1.small
Image: ami-9c78c0f5
Region: us-east-1
Availability Zone: us-east-1a
Security Groups: webserver, default
Security Group Ids: default
Tags: {"Name"=>"i-604df61e"}
SSH Key: awsdefault
Root Device Type: ebs
Root Volume ID: vol-66fa4619
Root Device Name: /dev/sda1
Root Device Delete on Terminate: true
Public DNS Name:
Public IP Address:
Private DNS Name: ip-10-101-51-86.ec2.internal
Private IP Address:
Environment: prod
Run List: role[base], role[db_master], role[webserver]
➜  fungibility git:(master) 

At the end of this run, you should see It works! page apache generates when you visit the public url of your amazon ec2 instance in a web browser. If you run into any errors during provisioning, you can edit the Chef configuration, upload that the Chef server, and then re-run the Chef client directly on the EC2 instance:

➜  fungibility git:(master) ssh -i ~/Downloads/awsdefault-east.pem

ec2$ sudo chef-client

Another way without ssh directly is to use knife to do a remote chef run

knife ssh role:base 'sudo chef-client'

Idempotence would come into play here and make it the fastest way to make config amendments because Chef won’t re-install things that are already installed.

Create the same on the HPcloud

This command assumes that you have a key named hpdefault and the corresponding hpdefault.pem pemfile saved in ~/Downloads folder, that the pemfile is marked read only for you chmod 400 ~/Downloads/hpdefault.pem, that you have a security group named webserver defined on HP Cloud, that you have roles defined and upload onto Chef server, and that have environments also uploaded. The specified image 120 is the Ubuntu 12.04 EBS image in HP Cloud and 102 is the flavor (standard.medium) of machine used. knife hp flavor list will give all flavors of machines available in the HP cloud. Also, you musts specify the db_master role before the webserver role.

knife hp server create \
    -S hpdefault -i ~/Downloads/hpdefault.pem \
    -G webserver,default \
    -x ubuntu \
    -d ubuntu12.04-gems \
    -E prod \
    -I 120 \
    -f 102 \
    -r "role[base],role[db_master],role[webserver]" 

After provisioning, knife will print out some details on your HP instance.

... [2012-12-12T01:39:55+00:00] INFO: Chef Run complete in 132.742629 seconds [2012-12-12T01:39:55+00:00] INFO: Running report handlers [2012-12-12T01:39:55+00:00] INFO: Report handlers complete

Instance ID: 403017
Instance Name: hp15-185-227-146
Flavor: 102
Image: 120
SSH Key Pair: hpdefault
Public IP Address:
Private IP Address:
Environment: prod
Run List: role[base], role[db_master], role[webserver]

You should be able to It works! page when you visit the public url of your hp instance in a web browser. You just witnessed what I would refer to as the rudimentary beginnings of fungibility of cloud machines. Now that you have two instances running identical configuration but on machines from two different providers.

Let’s query the cloud instances using knife.

➜  fungibility git:(master) knife hp server list 
Instance ID  Name              Public IP       Private IP  Flavor  Image  Key Pair   State 
403017       hp15-185-227-146   102     120    hpdefault  active

➜  fungibility git:(master) knife ec2 server list
Instance ID  Name        Public IP     Private IP    Flavor    Image         SSH Key     Security Groups     State  
i-604df61e   i-604df61e  m1.small  ami-9c78c0f5  awsdefault  default, webserver  running

and globally check uptime, restart apache and also run a sudo chef-client on all machines with base role.

knife ssh role:base 'uptime'
knife ssh role:base 'sudo service apache restart'
knife ssh role:base 'sudo chef-client'

# Restart Apache on all webservers
knife ssh role:webserver 'service apache restart'

# Check the free disk space on all nodes
knife ssh name:* 'df -h'

Destroy what you just created

Unless you are planning to use the instances for something else, it is a good idea to destroy them so you wont get charged. Enumerate your instances using knife

➜  fungibility git:(master) knife hp server list 
Instance ID  Name              Public IP       Private IP  Flavor  Image  Key Pair   State 
403017       hp15-185-227-146   102     120    hpdefault  active

➜  fungibility git:(master) knife ec2 server list
Instance ID  Name        Public IP     Private IP    Flavor    Image         SSH Key     Security Groups     State  
i-604df61e   i-604df61e  m1.small  ami-9c78c0f5  awsdefault  default, webserver  running

Delete the server instances, node, and client using knife:

#cleaning up HP
knife hp server delete 403017
knife node delete $INSTANCE
knife client delete $INSTANCE	

# cleaning up AWS EC2
knife ec2 server delete $INSTANCE
knife node delete $INSTANCE
knife client delete $INSTANCE

While deleting, you will notice that there are some minor differences between HP and AWS EC2 in the way knife deletion works.

Provision a local vagrant box

Now that you have the configuration working on two different cloud providers, lets configure vagrant in a similar fashion so we can use that as a development environment. Create a directory on your workstation for your vagrant VM that would be shared with the vagrantbox. This is where your dev work will reside in subdirectories within this folder.

mkdir -p $VMDIR

Next, download and save this as $VMDIR/Vagrantfile to help create and provision the vagrantbox.

(Vagrantfile) download
39 do |config| = "precise64"
  config.vm.forward_port 80, 8080

  config.vm.customize [
    "modifyvm", :id,
    "--name", "vagrant-vm",
    "--memory", "2048"
  ] :hostonly, ""
  config.vm.host_name = "vagrant-vm"
  config.vm.share_folder("v-root", "/home/vagrant/apps", ".", :nfs => true)

  # Your organization name for hosted Chef 
  orgname = "chef-validator"

  # Set the Chef node ID based on environment variable NODE, if set. Otherwise default to vagrant-$USER
  node = ENV['NODE']
  node ||= "vagrant-#{ENV['USER']}"

  config.vm.provision :chef_client do |chef|
    chef.chef_server_url = ""
    chef.validation_key_path = "#{ENV['HOME']}/.chef/validation.pem"
    chef.validation_client_name = "chef-validator"
    chef.encrypted_data_bag_secret_key_path = "#{ENV['HOME']}/.chef/encrypted_data_bag_secret"
    chef.node_name = "#{node}"
    chef.provisioning_path = "/etc/chef"
    chef.log_level = :debug
    #chef.log_level = :info

    chef.environment = "dev"

    #chef.json.merge!({ :mysql_password => "foo" }) # You can do this to override any default attributes for this node.

In this Vagrantfile, make sure to set orgname to the orgname you use in Hosted Chef. The node must be unique among all nodes that use your Chef server. You can override it by exporting a $NODE environment variable, or you can accept the default vagrant-$USER. This Vagrantfile uses NFS for shared folders which is useful on a Mac or Linux host. Omit the , :nfs => true argument on a Windows host. Don’t try to mount a shared directory on /home/vagrant as it will cause important configuration to be overwritten, such as the .ssh directory (preventing key-based ssh authentication). You can change the amount of memory allocated to the VM with the config.vm.customize [ "--memory", 2048] setting (currently configured to allocate 2GB). You must specify the db_master role before the webserver role.

Next, provision the vagrantbox:

vagrant up

Or, to specify a custom NODE name such as my-cool-vm:

NODE=my-cool-vm vagrant up

If you need to tweak the Chef scripts and then re-provision over the top of the existing configuration:

vagrant provision # a bug ?
vagrant ssh      # this is a workaround
sudo chef-client # this is a workaround

To wipe it out and start over:

vagrant destroy
knife node delete $NODE
knife client delete $NODE

Check if vagrantvm set up correctly by opening http://localhost:8080 in your browser to see the It works! page.